How do I Tell the Computer to Solve the 8-Puzzle Game Using A*?
This lesson introduces the Heuristic Search Algorithm A* (A Star) and uses it to solve the 8-Puzzle. A high level discussion of key algorithm components is given, and code samples are provided. Further research into the A* algorithm is strongly advised.
Prior knowledge of lesson How do I Create an 8-Puzzle Game? is essential and an understanding of lesson How to I Tell the Computer to Solve the 8-Puzzle Game? would be an advantage. The brute force algorithm discussed in How to I Tell the Computer to Solve the 8-Puzzle Game? is not relevant to this lesson but should provide you with an alternative view on how to solve puzzles like the 8-Puzzle.
A* (A Star) is a state space search algorithm that makes informed judgements about the cost involved in solving the puzzle. Two fundamental values feed into assessing the cost of a particular move on the board:
g: is the number of tiles that have moved to reach a board state that is being assessed
h: is the estimated cost to solve the board state that is currently being assessed
g can be calculated accurately by counting the number of moves we have already taken.
h is calculated using a heuristic that provides an underestimating cost to solve the game. The heuristic we use here is called the manhattan distance and calculates by how many squares a tile is displaced from the location that the tile would have to be in to form part of the winning board state.
This gives us the following cost assessment for any state in the search space: f = g + h
Using a heuristic to solve the 8-Puzzle, rather than brute force, as described in How to I Tell the Computer to Solve the 8-Puzzle Game? allows us to find a solution to the puzzle in less time. You can test the algorithms side by side to see the performance difference.
Integrating the Functionality
Please update the openStack code from lesson How do I Create an 8-Puzzle Game? with the following openStack code. This adds a Solve button to the board and populates that button with the LiveCode script to run the A* algorithm.
Note: Only one comment and one line of code have been added to the original openStack.
on openStack # set up the constants for the game type setGameConstants 3, 3 # remove any previous buttons that may already be on the card # this prevents us from duplicating existing buttons repeat while the number of buttons of this card > 0 delete button 1 of this card end repeat # create the board buttons createBoard 50 # write the values onto the buttons writeButtonLabels sWinningState # create the space on the board hide button ("b" & sSpaceButton) # create the shuffle button createShuffleButton # create the solve button createSolveButton # make sure the board cannot be resized set resizable of me to false end openStack
The Solve Button
Command createSolveButton creates the Solve button and populates the script that is called when pressing the button. This command also resizes the card on which the game buttons and tiles are placed.
command createSolveButton # create the shuffle button new button set the name of the last button to "New Button" set label of button "New Button" to "Solve" set width of button "New Button" to 60 * sTilesX + sOffset * (sTilesX - 1) set location of button "New Button" to (60 * sTilesX + sOffset * (sTilesX - 1)) / 2 + 20, \ (60 * sTilesY + sOffset * (sTilesY - 1)) + 96 # populate the button script for the shuffle button set the script of button "New Button" to \ "on mouseUp" & cr & \ "solvePuzzle 50" & cr & \ "end mouseUp" set the name of button "New Button" to "Solve" # resize the board for the buttons set the width of me to 60 * sTilesX + sOffset * (sTilesX - 1) + 40 set the height of me to 60 * sTilesY + sOffset * (sTilesY - 1) + 126 end createSolveButton
Managing the Solution Process
Command solvePuzzle performs all the steps need to solve the 8-Puzzle. This includes testing whether or not the first board state is already the winning board state, calling the cost function costGH and exploreStates to explore the next potential paths that may lead to a solution. pPadding specifies the amount of space that exists between the top and the left edge of the stack cards and the grid tiles.
command solvePuzzle pPadding local tStatesToExplore, tExploredStates, tMove # create the first state to explore and calculate its estimated cost put "," & boardToBoardState (pPadding) into tStatesToExplore if manhattanDistance (item 2 of tStatesToExplore) is 0 then answer "Puzzle is Already Solved!" with "OK" else put costGH (tStatesToExplore) & "," & tStatesToExplore into tStatesToExplore repeat until tStatesToExplore is empty if manhattanDistance (item 3 of line 1 of tStatesToExplore) is 0 then repeat for each word tMove in item 2 of line 1 tStatesToExplore swapButtons sSpaceButton, tMove end repeat answer "I Made It!" with "OK" exit repeat else exploreStates tStatesToExplore, tExploredStates end if end repeat end if end solvePuzzle
Exploring Game States
Command exploreStates takes pointers to two lists of states that are to be explored and that have already been explored. This information is important as it allows the search algorithm to make an informed decision as to whether a new state is better or worse than states that have been visited in the past or states that are to be visited in the future.
command exploreStates @pStatesToExplore, @pExploredStates local tNewStates, tResult # get the next possible moves for pStateToExplore put getNewStatePaths (line 1 of pStatesToExplore) into tNewStates # move the state path that is being explored to pExploredStates if pExploredStates is not empty then put cr after pExploredStates end if put line 1 of pStatesToExplore after pExploredStates # remove the state path that is being explored from pStatesToExplore put line 2 to -1 of pStatesToExplore into pStatesToExplore # prune the existing explored and unexplored search space pruneStateSpace tNewStates, pStatesToExplore, pExploredStates # sort pStatesToExplore so the cheapest path is located at the beginning sort lines of pStatesToExplore numeric by item 1 of each end exploreStates
Getting New States
Function getNewStatePaths produces a list of possible states that can be reached by moving one tile from the most recent state of pPath. pPath is the only parameter passed to this function. All possible next steps are returned by tResult.
function getNewStatePaths pPath local tPossibleMove, tNewPath, tResult # we are testing for all possible tile moves # from the most recent state of the current path repeat with tPossibleMove = 0 to sSpaceButton - 1 put deriveNextState (pPath, tPossibleMove, sSpaceButton) into tNewPath if tNewPath is not empty then if tResult is not empty then put cr after tResult end if put tNewPath after tResult end if end repeat return tResult end getNewStatePaths
Generating a New State for an Existing Path
Function deriveNextState takes three arguments and tries to add a new state to the path that is passed in by the argument pCurrentPath. pSwap1 and pSwap2 are the tiles that are to be swapped in order to create the new state. If tiles pSwap1 and pSwap2 cannot be swapped, then deriveNextState returns empty.
pCurrentPath and the non empty tResult are comma delimited strings with item 1 containing the current cost f of the path, item 2 containing the individual moves that can later be replayed when solving the 8-Puzzle and items 3 to n containing the individual board states that make up the path that is being explored.
function deriveNextState pCurrentPath, pSwap1, pSwap2 local tHorizontal, tVertical, tButton1H, tButton2H, \ tButton1V, tButton2V, tPossibleNewState, tResult # get the x and y positions of the two buttons to be swapped # with respect to the horizontal and vertical game grid of the first # state of the current path # we are using item 3 here as item 1 is the cost of the path and # item 2 contains the moves needed to solve the puzzle put (wordOffset (pSwap1, item 3 of pCurrentPath) - 1) mod sTilesX into tButton1H put (wordOffset (pSwap1, item 3 of pCurrentPath) - 1) div sTilesY into tButton1V put (wordOffset (pSwap2, item 3 of pCurrentPath) - 1) mod sTilesX into tButton2H put (wordOffset (pSwap2, item 3 of pCurrentPath) - 1) div sTilesY into tButton2V # determine if the two buttons can be swapped, # if so create a new state that represents the swap if ((tButton1H - tButton2H is 0) and (abs (tButton1V - tButton2V) is 1)) or \ ((tButton1V - tButton2V is 0) and (abs (tButton1H - tButton2H) is 1)) then put item 3 pCurrentPath into tPossibleNewState replace pSwap1 with "X" in tPossibleNewState replace pSwap2 with pSwap1 in tPossibleNewState replace "X" with pSwap2 in tPossibleNewState # check here if we have a loop in the path and reject it if so if itemOffset (tPossibleNewState, item 3 to -1 of pCurrentPath) is 0 then # add the new state to the front of other states put tPossibleNewState & "," & item 3 to -1 of pCurrentPath into tResult # add the move that got us to this new state to the list of moves we made so far if item 2 of pCurrentPath is empty then put pSwap1 & "," & tResult into tResult else put item 2 of pCurrentPath && pSwap1 & "," & tResult into tResult end if put costGH (tResult) & "," & tResult into tResult end if end if return tResult end deriveNextState
Calculating f = g + h
Function costGH calculates the cost f for a given path pPath.
function costGH pPath local tMove, tResult # calculate g for pPath repeat for each word tMove in item 1 of pPath add 1 to tResult end repeat # calculate h for pPath and add it to g add manhattanDistance (item 2 of pPath) to tResult return tResult end costGH
Pruning the Search Space
Command pruneStateSpace take a set of paths that are to be explored and tries to add them to pStatesToExplore. A successful add depends on whether or not a potentially better path already exists in pStatesToExplore or pExploredStates.
Note: pStatesToExplore and pExploredStates are passed in by reference. This means that any changes made to their content will be permanent and affects their use outside the scope of this command.
command pruneStateSpace pNewPaths, @pStatesToExplore, @pExploredStates local tPath, tStatesToExploreDuplicate, tExploredStatesDuplicate, tAddFlag repeat for each line tPath in pNewPaths put false into tAddFlag # find out if the new state to explore exists # as a head in one of the already explored states put stateMatch (tPath, pExploredStates) into tExploredStatesDuplicate # find out if the new state to explore exists # as a head in one of the states that are still to be explored put stateMatch (tPath, pStatesToExplore) into tStatesToExploreDuplicate if tExploredStatesDuplicate is false and tStatesToExploreDuplicate is false then # if we found no match, then set a flag to add the new path # to the paths that are to be explored put true into tAddFlag else if tExploredStatesDuplicate is not false and item 1 of tPath < \ item 1 of line tExploredStatesDuplicate of pExploredStates then # if we found a match with the states we already explored and the new path # is cheaper then remove the matched state from the explored states # and set the flag to add the new path to the paths that are to be explored delete line tExploredStatesDuplicate of pExploredStates put true into tAddFlag else if tStatesToExploreDuplicate is not false and item 1 of tPath < \ item 1 of line tStatesToExploreDuplicate of pStatesToExplore then # if we found a match with the states we have not yet explored and the new # path is cheaper then remove the matched state from the unexplored states # and set the flag to add the new path to the paths that are to be explored delete line tStatesToExploreDuplicate of pStatesToExplore put true into tAddFlag end if # if tAddFlag is set then add the new path to the paths that are to be explored # any new paths that exist for which tAddFlag is not set to true are skipped if tAddFlag is true then if pStatesToExplore is not empty then put cr after pStatesToExplore end if put tPath after pStatesToExplore end if end repeat end pruneStateSpace
Function stateMatch tests whether or not the most recent state in a new path matches one of the most recent states in a list of paths. This function returns false if no match was found or the location where the path match was found.
function stateMatch pPath, pPathList local tPath, tLineCount repeat for each line tPath in pPathList add 1 to tLineCount if item 3 of tPath is item 3 of pPath then return tLineCount end if end repeat return false end stateMatch
The 8-Puzzle Board (Ready to Play)
The puzzle interface from this lesson works in the same way as the puzzle interface from lesson How do I Tell the Computer to Solve the 8-Puzzle?. The only difference is that the label on the Solve button does not change. This is because the search algorithm is iterative, rather than recursive and we are not exploring the search space in a depth first fashion.
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