# Using Arrays in a Word Finder App

In this lesson we will see how to use LiveCode to build a small Word Finder application. This application was originally developed by one of the Development Team to 'assist' him in his Scrabble playing, it's handy but perhaps not strictly within the rules of the game.

The LiveCode Word Finder has two options; an Anagram Finder and a Scrabble Solver. The Anagram Finder takes a list of letters and returns all the valid anagrams which can be created using them relative to a fixed list of words. Each anagram is checked for validity against the SOWPODS word list which is the word list used in current International Scrabble Tournaments.

The Scrabble Solver extends the functionality of the Anagram Finder by filtering its results to find only the anagrams which match the user entered pattern. This pattern represents an opening on the Scrabble board where, for example, the pattern 'b??' means find all three letter words starting with 'b'. Question marks must be used to represent wildcards. Only anagrams which contain the same number of characters as those in the pattern will be returned.

## Interface

Firstly we need to create our interface, we need options for what task we want to perform(1), fields to enter the pattern to match(2) and available letters(3), a search button(4) and a results field (5).

We group the radio buttons for Anagram Finder and Scrabble Solver, this means only one can be selected at a time without you having to implement that behavior manually.

## Implementing the Anagram Finder - Stage 1 Finding all Possible Permutations

The Word Finder is implemented using one recursive function, which makes up the backbone of the application, and a handful of smaller, simpler functions which perform various checks and preparation work.

We begin by generating a list of all possible permutations using the letters which were entered in the Available Letters field. This is done using a recursive function which continually splits the string of available letters down into smaller substrings, and calls itself again with a substring as the parameter. The recursion stops when the parameter string contains only one character and therefore can't be split any further. As the recursion is taking place lists of permutations are generated by placing the characters which have been taken off the start of the parameter string, in turn, between each of the remaining characters of the string. More details can be found by looking at the permuteSequence function in the card script. You can view the card script at the end of this lesson.

## Implementing the Anagram Finder - Stage 2 Checking against the Dictionary

Once a list of permutations has been found they are checked to see if they are valid words (relative to our dictionary). As the dictionary is quite large, we store it compressed (using the built-in compress function) in the custom property uAllWords of the stack. To check if a permutation is valid we could have used

``tString is among the lines of sDictionary``

but the time required for this check would be dependent on the size of the dictionary. As a result the dictionary is instead placed into an array using the code below

``````repeat for each line tWord in tWords
put true into sDictionary[tWord]
end repeat``````

This allows us to use the check

``sDictionary[tString]``

This will be true if tString is within the word list, and empty (i.e. false) otherwise. This check is much more efficient than checking the lines of the custom property as it can be carried out in constant time. Any permutations which are contained within the dictionary are added to a list of valid words. The final piece of processing needed is to remove any duplicates from this list of words. A duplicate can occur if there are multiple instances of a given letter in the Available Letters field since each letter is treated uniquely in terms of producing permutations.

## ABC Example

Given the letters a,b,c the possible permutations are

abc,bac,bca,acb,cab,cba,ab,ba,ac,ca,a,bc,cb,b,c,

but the only valid words are

ab, ba, bac, cab

At this point the remaining words will be returned if the Anagram Finder option has been selected.

## Scrabble Solver

If you selected the Scrabble Solver option one more step is needed before returning the results. This step further filters the list of anagrams to cut out any which do not match the pattern which the user entered. It is implemented using the filter command and takes the contents of the Pattern field to use as the regular expression.

Question marks must be used to represent wildcards, for example the pattern 'a?' returns all valid 2 letter words starting with a. In the example above this is aa and ab. This is the list of valid 2 letter words beginning with a which can be made with the given letters, in this case aa is possible because we assume that the a given in the pattern is already on the board and the second a comes from the list of tiles we have in our hand.

## Using the Anagram Finder

If you are using the Anagram Finder at least one character must be placed in the available letters field. The returned anagrams will contain only the characters which you enter. Clicking Search will start the application and cause any results to appear in the field below the button.

## Using the Scrabble Solver

When using the Scrabble Solver both a pattern and list of available characters are required. The characters represent the tiles you currently hold and the pattern an opening on the board( i.e. t *blank slot* *blank slot* *blank slot*). Blank slots (i.e. wildcards) must be entered as question marks and will be interpreted as spaces which need to be filled by one of your tiles. Once you have entered both a pattern and your tiles click Search to retrieve word suggestions. An example of a valid search is shown in the screenshot.

## The Card Script in Full

``````local sDictionary
on preOpenCard
-- Fetch the compressed list of words and decompress it
local tWords
put decompress(the uAllWords of this stack) into tWords

-- Use an array to allow fast checking of validity of
-- our dictionary words:
--   A word is in the dictionary if sDictionary[tWord]
--   is true.
repeat for each line tWord in tWords
put true into sDictionary[tWord]
end repeat

-- Reset the display
put empty into field "Pattern"
put empty into field "AvailableLetters"
put empty into field "Results"
end preOpenCard
#
#  Generate all anagrams possible with the available letters
#  and return only those present in the dictionary.
#
function generateAnagrams pLetterList
-- Convert list of letters into sequence of letters
-- (remove commas, make lower-case)
local tLetters
put pLetterList into tLetters
replace comma with empty in tLetters
put toLower(tLetters) into tLetters

-- Generate the list of permuations of our letters
local tPermutations
put generatePermutations(tLetters) into tPermutations

-- Now iterate through all permutations and determine which
-- ones are valid dictionary words
local tAnagrams
repeat for each item tPermutation in tPermutations
if sDictionary[tPermutation] then
put tPermutation & comma after tAnagrams
end if
end repeat
delete char -1 of tAnagrams

-- Remove any duplicate entries in our anagram list and
-- format appropriately.
local tUniqueAnagrams
put removeDuplicates(tAnagrams) into tUniqueAnagrams

return tUniqueAnagrams
end generateAnagrams
function solveScrabble pPattern, pAvailableLetters
local tAnagrams
put generateAnagrams(pAvailableLetters) into tAnagrams

-- Anagrams are returned as a comma separated list, with some formatting
-- (additional space after each comma) so turn this into a return-separated list
replace comma & space with return in tAnagrams

-- Filter out any words that do not match the pattern.
local tMatchedWords
put tAnagrams into tMatchedWords
filter tMatchedWords with pPattern

-- Reapply the formatting as a comma (and space) separated list
replace return with comma & space in tMatchedWords

return tMatchedWords
end solveScrabble

#
#  Delete any duplicates from the list and sort the resulting
#  items by word length, formatting appropriately.
#
function removeDuplicates pList
put pList into tRest
repeat with x=1 to the number of items of tRest
put item 1 of tRest into tHead
delete item 1 of tRest
if tHead is not among the items of tRest then
put tHead & "," after tSingleInstance
end if
end repeat
delete char -1 of tSingleInstance
sort items of tSingleInstance ascending numeric by the length of each
replace comma with ", " in tSingleInstance
return tSingleInstance
end removeDuplicates

#
#  Get a list of all possible permutations.
#
function generatePermutations pAvailableLetters
return permuteSequence(pAvailableLetters)
end generatePermutations
#  The main part of the recursive function - we make this private as it speed up
#  execution slightly.
#
private function permuteSequence pAvailableLetters
-- Terminate the recursion if we reach a single letter as there is only
-- one permutation of one letter (obviously!).
if the number of chars in pAvailableLetters is 1 then
--  If theres only one character there is only one way to write it.
return pAvailableLetters & comma
end if

-- We have more than one letter, so recurse to form a list of all
-- permutations
local tPermutations
repeat with j = 1 to the length of pAvailableLetters
local tCurrentLetter

-- Split the list of letters into first letter (tCurrentLetter),
-- and remaining letters (pAvailableLetters)
put char 1 of pAvailableLetters into tCurrentLetter
delete char 1 of pAvailableLetters

--  Compute the permutations of the remaining letters
local tSmallerPermutations
put permuteSequence(pAvailableLetters) into tSmallerPermutations

-- Loop through all permutations not including the first letter (tCurrentLetter)
-- and insert the first letter in every possible place. e.g. given a permutation
--   foo and first letter b
-- we get:
--   bfoo, fboo, fobo, foob
local tCurrentWord
put comma after tSmallerPermutations
repeat for each item tCurrentWord in tSmallerPermutations
-- Iterate over the characters within the current string.
repeat with y=0 to the number of chars in tCurrentWord
local tStartString, tEndString

-- Get a substring to make up the start of the permutation.
put char 1 to y of tCurrentWord into tStartString

-- Get a substring to make up the end of the permutation.
put char y+1 to -1 of tCurrentWord into tEndString

-- Put the first character between the substrings.
put tStartString & tCurrentLetter & tEndString & "," after tPermutations
end repeat
end repeat
end repeat

-- Return the list of permutations
return tPermutations
end permuteSequence``````